What causes wheel vibration?

 

Vehicle noises and vibrations occur for many reasons. Some occur during the normal operation of the vehicle, as in the case of mechanical rotating parts. These include the engine, transmission, driveline, and tire/wheel assemblies.

Other noises and vibrations may occur due to abnormal conditions, found in tires, wheels, driveline, and worn parts.

Every vibration consists of three elements.

Source Component (excitation) - a component causing another object to vibrate.

Transfer Path - the object(s) that transfer the vibration (frequency).

Responding Component - the noticeable component that is vibrating.



The component creating the vibration may be a great distance from the component actually shaking or making noise.

The problem may be a damper working improperly or missing, which opens the transfer path to the responding component.

Another possibility is the deterioration of the responding component. Perhaps it becomes simpler to make it shake, rattle or make noise.

Vibration is divided into two categories:
Forced (vibrates when energy is applied) - An imbalanced tire vibrates when put in motion.

Forced Vibration

Free (continues to vibrate after outside energy stops) - A vehicle antenna or seatback continues to vibrate after the energy stops.

Free Vibration

Harmonic Vibrations

A vibration in a tire and rim assembly can be caused by:

  Imbalance
  Change in Sidewall Stiffness (Force Variation)
  Rim Bent/Out-of-Round
  Tire Out-of-Round
  Wheel to Axle Mounting Error*
  Brake Component Wear or Failure*
  Drive Train or Engine Component Wear or Failure*
  Vehicle Component Characteristics*
  Combination of Some or All Factors

* Factors not detected by the GSP9700 Vibration Control System.


1st order vibrations occur once per revolution (cycle) as illustrated below.



2nd order vibrations
occur twice per revolution as illustrated below.



3rd order vibrations
occur three times per revolution as illustrated below.

 
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